Autoclaving (steam sterilization) is one of the most reliable methods of sterilization. It is used to get rid of microorganisms on materials and objects. This is realized under elevated pressure and temperatures between 110°C and 140°C in a special gas chamber, called autoclave. Thereby the microorganisms are rendered harmless due to denaturation of the protein in the cells.
There are two kinds of autoclaving:
The vacuum method: Alternately, air is extracted from and steam gets pumped into the the autoclave
The flow method: The air is entirely replaced by steam.